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MECTA – Supporting advances and research for the treatment of depressive disorders with the use of electroconvulsive therapy

In this section, clinicians can find resources, research, and helpful links and downloads for more information on meetings, the current standard of care, training and fellowships and MECTA educational materials.

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Standard of Care

White Paper
Chapter 13
Electroconvulsive Therapy in Late-Life Depression

Sackeim, H.A., Ph.D.


White Paper
Chapter 10
Electroconvulsive Therapy and Related Treatments

Coffey, C.E., M.D.
Cummings, J.L., M.D.


Neuromodulation Journals

Biological Psychiatry

The Journal of ECT

Brain Stimulation

Selected Citations in ECT Literature

1. Meduna, L.J.: The convulsive therapy of schizophrenia. Psychiatr Neurol Wochenschr, 1935, 37:317-319.

2. Kalinowsky, L.B., and Hoch, P.H.: Shock Treatments and Other Somatic Procedures in Psychiatry. New York: Grune & Stratton, 1946.

3. American Psychiatric Association Task Force on ECT: Electroconvulsive Therapy, Task Force Report #14. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1978.

4. Blachley, P., Denny, D., Fling, J., Moulton, C.: A new stimulus generator and recorder for electroconvulsive therapy, Unpublished Manuscript, 1974.

5. Fink, M.: Convulsive Therapy: Theory and Practice. New York: Raven Press, 1979.

6. Weiner, R.D.: ECT and seizure threshold: Effects of stimulus waveform and electrode placement. Biological Psychiatry, 1980; 15:225-241.

7. Crowe, R.: Current concepts. Electroconvulsive therapy--a current perspective. New England Journal of Medicine, 1984, 311:163-167.

8. Weiner, R.D.: Does ECT cause brain damage? Behavioral Brain Science, 1984, 7:1-53.

9. Malitz, S., Sackeim, H.A. (Eds): Electroconvulsive Therapy: Clinical and Basic Research Issues. New York Academy of Sciences, New York, 1986.

10. Weiner, R.D., Rogers, H.J., Davidson, J.R., et al: Effects of stimulus parameters on cognitive side effects. Ann N Y Academy of Sciences, New York, 1986, 462:315-325.

11. Sackeim, H.A., Decina, P., Kanzler, M., Kerr, B., and Malitz, S.: Effects of electrode placement on the efficacy of titrated, low-dose ECT. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1987, 144:1449-1455.

12. Sackeim, H.A., Decina, P., Portnoy, S., Neeley, P., and Malitz, S.: Studies of dosage, seizure threshold, and seizure duration in ECT. Biological Psychiatry, 1987, 22:249-268.

13. Sackeim, H.A., Decina, P., Prohovnik, I., and Malitz, S.: Seizure threshold in ECT: Effects of sex, age, electrode placement and number of treatments. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1987, 44:355-360.

14. Weiner, R.D., Coffey C.E.: Indications for use of electroconvulsive therapy, in Review of Psychiatry, Vol 7. Edited by Frances, A.J., Hales, R.E. Washington, DC, American Psychiatric Press, 1988, 458-481.

15. Prudic, J., Sackeim, H.A., and Devanand, D.P.: Medication resistance and clinical response to electroconvulsive therapy. Psychiatry Research, 1990, 31:287-296.

16. American Psychiatric Association: The Practice of ECT: Recommendations for Treatment, Training and Privileging. First Edition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1990.

17. Devanand, D.P., Verma, A.K., Tirumalasetti, F., and Sackeim, H.A.: Absence of cognitive impairment after more than 100 lifetime ECT treatments. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1991, 148: 929-932.

18. Nobler, M.S., Sackeim, H.A., Solomou, M., Luber, B., Devanand, D.P., and Prudic, J.: EEG manifestations during ECT: Effects of electrode placement and stimulus intensity. Biological Psychiatry, 1993, 34:321-330.

19. Sackeim, H.A., Prudic, J., Devanand, D.P., Kiersky, J.E., Fitzsimons, L., Moody, B.J., McElhiney, M.C., Coleman, E.A., and Settembrino, J.M.: Effects of stimulus intensity and electrode placement on the efficacy and cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy. New England Journal of Medicine, 1993, 328:839-846.

20. Zielinski, R.J., Roose, S.P., Devanand, D.P., Woodring, S., and Sackeim, H.A.: Cardiovascular complications of ECT in depressed patients with cardiac disease. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1993, 150:904-909.

21. Krystal, A.D., Weiner, R.D., McCall, W.V., Shelp, F., Arias, R., and Smith, P.:  The effects of ECT stimulus dose and electrode placement on the ictal electroencephalogram:  An intraindividual placement on the ictal electroencephalogram: An intraindividual cross-over study.  Biological Psychiatry, 1993, 34:759-767.

22. Devanand, D.P., Dwork, A.J., Hutchinson, E.R., Bolwig, T.G., and Sackeim, H.A.: Does electroconvulsive therapy alter brain structure? American Journal of Psychiatry, 1994, 151:957-970.

23. Mukherjee, S., Sackeim, H.A., and Schnur, D.B.: Electroconvulsive therapy of acute manic episodes: A review of 50 years of experience. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1994, 151:169-176.

24. Nobler, M.S., Sackeim, H.A., Prohovnik, I., Moeller, J.R., Mukherjee, S., Schnur, D.B., Prudic, J., and Devanand, D.P.: Regional cerebral blood flow in mood disorders: III. Effects of treatment and clinical response in depression and mania. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1994, 51:884-897.

25. Sackeim, H.A., Long, J., Luber, B., Moeller, J.R., Prohovnik, I., Devanand, D.P., and Nobler, M.S.: Physical properties and quantification of the ECT stimulus: I. Basic principles. Convulsive Therapy, 1994, 10:93-123.

26. Sobin, C., Sackeim, H.A., Prudic, J., Devanand, D.P., Moody, B.J., and McElhiney, M.C.: Predictors of retrograde amnesia following electroconvulsive therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1995, 152:995-1001.

27. Krystal, A.D., Weiner, R.D., Coffey, C.E.:  The ictal EEG as a marker of adequate stimulus intensity with unilateral ECT. J. Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 1995, 7:295-303.

28. Prudic, J., Haskett, R.F., Mulsant, B., Malone, K.M., Pettinati, H.M., Stephens, S., Greenberg, R., Rifas, S.L., Sackeim, H.A.: Resistance to antidepressant medications and short-term clinical response to ECT. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1996, 153:985-992.

29. Krystal, A.D., Weiner, R.D., Coffey, C.E., McCall, W.V.:  The effect of ECT treatment number on the ictal EEG.  Psychiatry Research, 1996, 62:179-189.

30. Krystal, A.D., Weiner, R.D., Gassert, D., McCall, W.V., Coffey, C.E., Sibert, T., Holsinger, T.: The relative ability of 3 ictal EEG frequency bands to differentiate ECT seizures on the basis of electrode placement, stimulus intensity, and therapeutic response.  Convulsive Therapy, 1996, 12:13-24.

31. Sackeim, H.A., Luber, L., Katzman, G.P., Moeller, J.R., Prudic, J., Devanand, D.P., and Nobler, M.S.: The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on quantitative EEG: Relationship to clinical outcome. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1996, 53:814-824.

32. Devanand, D.P., Lisanby, S.H., Nobler, M.S., Sackeim, H.A.: The relative efficiency of altering pulse frequency or train duration when determining seizure threshold. The Journal of ECT, 1998, 4:227-235.

33. Olfson, M., Marcus, S., Sackeim, H.A., Thompson, J., and Pincus, H.A.: Use of ECT for the inpatient treatment of recurrent major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 1998, 155:22-29.

34. Krystal, A.D., Coffey, C.E., Weiner, R.D., Holsinger, T.:  Changes in seizure threshold over the course of electroconvulsive therapy affect therapeutic response and are detected by ictal EEG ratings.  J. Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 1998, 10:178-186.

35. Lisanby, S.H., Maddox, J.H., Prudic, J., Devanand, D.P., and Sackeim, H.A.: The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on memory of autobiographical and public events. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2000, 57:581-590.

36. McCall, W.V., Reboussin, D.M., Weiner, R.D., and Sackeim, H.A.: Titrated, moderately suprathreshold versus fixed high-dose right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy: acute antidepressant and cognitive effects. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2000, 57:438-444.

37. Sackeim, H.A., Prudic, J., Devanand, D.P., Nobler, M.S., Lisanby, S.H., Peyser, S., Fitzsimons, L., Moody, B.J., and Clark, J.: A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of bilateral and right unilateral ECT at different stimulus intensities. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2000, 57:425-437

38. Krystal, A.D., Holsinger, T., Weiner, R.D., Coffey, C.E.: Prediction of the utility of a switch from unilateral to bilateral ECT in the elderly using treatment 2 ictal EEG indices.  The Journal of ECT, 2000, 16:327-337.

39. Krystal, A.D., Weiner, R.D., Lindahl, V., Massie, R.: The development and retrospective testing of an electroencephalographic seizure-quality based stimulus dosing paradigm with ECT.  The Journal of ECT, 2000, 16:338-349.

40. Nobler, M.S., Oquendo, M.A., Kegeles, L.S., Malone, K.M., Campbell, C., Sackeim, H.A., and Mann, J.J.: Decreased regional brain metabolism following electroconvulsive therapy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 2001, 158:305-308.

41. Sackeim, H.A., Haskett, R.F., Mulsant, B.H., Thase, M.E., Mann, J.J., Pettinati, H.M., Greenberg, R.M., Crowe, R.R., Cooper, T.B., and Prudic, J.: Continuation pharmacotherapy in the prevention of relapse following electroconvulsive therapy: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2001,285:1299-1307.

42. American Psychiatric Association: The Practice of ECT: Recommendations for Treatment, Training and Privileging. Second Edition. Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 2001.

43. Abrams, R.: Electroconvulsive Therapy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2002.

44. Kellner, C.H., Knapp, R.G., Petrides, G., Rummans, T.A., Husain, M.M., Rasmussen, K., Mueller, M., Bernstein, H.J., O'connor, K., Smith, G., Biggs, M., Bailine, S.H., Malur, C., Yim, E., Mcclintock, S., Sampson, S., and Fink, M.: Continuation electroconvulsive therapy vs pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention in major depression: a multisite study from the Consortium for Research in Electroconvulsive Therapy (CORE). Archives of General Psychiatry, 2006, 63:1337-1344.

45. Dwork, A.J., Arango, V., Underwood, M., Ilievski, B., Rosoklija, G., Sackeim, H.A., and Lisanby, S.H.: Absence of Histological Lesions in primate models of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST). American Journal of Psychiatry, 2004, 161:576-578.

46. Prudic, J., Olfson, M., Marcus, S.C., Fuller, R.B., and Sackeim, H.A.: Effectiveness of electroconvulsive therapy in community settings. Biological Psychiatry, 2004, 55:301-312.

47. Sackeim, H.A.: The convulsant and anticonvulsant properties of electroconvulsive therapy: towards a focal form of brain stimulation. Clinical Neuroscience Research, 2004, 4:39-57.

48. Sackeim, H.A.: Electroconvulsive therapy in late life depression. In Salzman, C. (Ed.), Clinical Geriatric Psychopharmacology, 2004, 4:385-422.

49. Perera, T.D., Coplan, J.D., Lisanby, S.H., Lipira, C.M., Arif, M., Carpio, C., Spitzer, G., Santarelli, L., Scharf, B., Hen, R., Rosoklija, G., Sackeim, H.A., Dwork, A.J: Antidepressant-Induced Neurogenesis in the Hippocampus of Adult Nonhuman Primates. The Journal of Neuroscience, May 2007, 27(18); 4894-4901.

50. Sackeim, H.A., Prudic, J., Fuller, R., Keilp, J., Lavori, P.W., and Olfson, M.: The cognitive effects of electroconvulsive therapy in community settings. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2007, 32:244-254.

51. Sackeim, H.A, Prudic, J., Nobler, M.S., Fitzsimons, R.N., Lisanby, S.H., Payne, N., Berman R.M., Brakemeier, E.L., Perera, T.P., Devanand, D.P.: Effects of Pulse Width and Electrode Placement on the Efficacy and Cognitive Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy. Brain Stimulation, April 2008, 1:71-83.

52. Spellman, T., Peterchev, A.V., Lisanby, S.H.: Focal Electrically Administered Seizure Therapy: A Novel form of ECT Illustrates the Roles of Current Directionality, Polarity, and Electrode Configuration in Seizure Induction. Neuropsychopharmacology, 2009, 34.

53. Sackeim, H.A., Dillingham, E.M., Prudic, J., Cooper, T., McCall, W.V., Rosenquist, P., Isenberg, K., Garcia, K., Mulsant, B.H., Haskett, R.F.: Effect of Concomitant Pharmacotherapy on Electroconvulsive Therapy Outcomes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 66:(7): 729-737, 2009.

54. Peterchev, A.V., Rosa, M., Deng, Z., Prudic, J., Lisanby, S.: Electroconvulsive therapy stimulus parameters: rethinking dosage. The Journal of ECT, 2010, 3:159-174.

55. McCall, W.V., Rosenquist, P.B., Kimball, J., Haskett, R., Isenberg, K., Prudic, J., Lasater, B., Sackeim, H.A.: Health-Related Quality of Life in a Clinical Trial of ECT Followed by Continuation Pharmacotherapy: Effects Immediately After ECT and at 24 Weeks. The Journal of ECT, 2011, 27:97-102.

56. Nahas, Z., Short, B., Burns, C., Archer, M., Schmidt, M., Prudic, J., Nobler, M.S., Devanand, D.P., Fitzsimons, L., Lisanby, S.H., Payne, N., Perera, T., George, M.S., Sackeim, H.A.: A Feasibility Study of a New Method for Electrically Producing Seizures in Man: A Focal Electrically Administered Seizure Therapy (FEAST). Brain Stimulation, May 2013, 6(3): 403-408.

57. Chahine,G., Short, B.,, Spicer, K., Schmidt, M., Burns,C., Atoui, M., George, M.S., Sackeim, H.A., Nahas, Ziad:Regional Cerebral Blood Flow Changes Associated With Focal Electrically Administered Seizure Therapy (FEAST). Brain Stimulation, May 2013, in press.

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